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Different Parts of the Human Eye

Gaynor Borade Apr 16, 2019
The human eye is the most intricate and delicate part of the body. Complex eyes, like those of humans, are able to distinguish shapes and colors within a large field of vision. Have a look at some information about the various parts of the human eye.
The human eye functions like a light sensor. It gives man the ability to perceive the world around and observe much more than he can with the other four senses.
The organ is put to optimum use throughout an entire lifetime for depth perception, to facilitate better movement in the immediate environment. The eyes help us to interpret colors, shapes and dimensions. This feat is achieved by processing the light emitted by objects around.

Parts of the Human Eye

The human eye functions with the help of an intricate system that comprises a number of independent and dependent parts. Collectively, the different parts are responsible for capturing the light reflected off objects in the surrounding, and generating images. The different parts of the human eye include:
  • Anterior and Posterior Chambers or the space between the cornea and iris
  • Aqueous humor, a fluid that provides the cornea and lens with nutrients and oxygen
  • Canals of Schlemm, located around the iris, to facilitate the draining of aqueous fluid
  • Choroid, a layer of blood vessels between the sclera and retina
  • Ciliary body, the region where the aqueous humor is produced
  • Ciliary muscle, responsible for changing the shape of the lens for distant vision
  • Conjunctiva, a clear membrane in front of the eye and inner eyelids that produces mucous to lubricate the eye
  • Cornea, a dome-shaped surface that is the real optical system
  • Crystalline lens positioned behind the cornea, to maintain image-focus on the retina
  • Eyeballs that offer binocular vision, by fusing images in the visual cortex
  • Eyelashes and eyebrows with protective hair
  • Eyelids to lubricate the eyes and keep them moist and clean
  • Eye sockets or cone-shaped cavities that protect the eye
  • Fovea, an indentation in the macula, responsible for highest visual acuity
  • Lacrimal gland or tear duct to prevents the cornea from becoming dehydrated
  • Lacrimal sac, responsible for draining tears and debris from the eye
  • Iris, a ring of muscle fiber behind the cornea that responds to the brightness of surrounding light
  • Macula, a part of the retina responsible for central vision
  • Optic disk, a spot on the retina that creates the 'blind' spot
  • Optic nerve, a nerve fiber network that connects the eye to the brain
  • Six orbital muscles responsible for eye movement
  • Photoreceptor cells in the retina that send electrical signals to the brain
  • Pupil, responsible for enabling light to pass through
  • Retina, the eye film that converts light rays into electrical signals
  • Retinal pigment epithelium, a layer of cells between the retina and choroid that absorbs scattered and reflected light
  • Sclera, the white eye wall that uses internal fluid pressure to maintain eye shape
  • Visual axis, an imaginary line that facilitates the generation of a 'fixation' point
  • Vitreous cavity, the space between the lens and retina
  • Vitreous humor, a jelly-like liquid that fills the eye
  • Zonules or string-like fibers, that holds the eye lens in position
The human eye is a vital organ of vision that is critical and essential for routine activities. It bears a direct impact on developmental learning, communication, and the overall quality of life. It is important to ensure that eye health is maintained at all times.
Eyes are sensitive and hence, you need to avoid rubbing them indiscriminately. The use of eye protection gear when outdoors, a balanced diet comprising plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables, and proper maintenance is essential to maintain the health of the eyes.