One of the most complex components of the human body, the nervous system is divided into two parts: the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord.
The brain is the driving force behind the various actions we perform. The fact that an organ weighing approximately 3 lbs can control our entire body, is quite fascinating in itself.
This makes it the most sophisticated organ of the human anatomy. It works in coordination with various parts of the body and forms the basis of our five senses: sight, touch, hearing, taste, and smell.
The brain is divided into 3 parts: the brainstem, cerebellum, and the cerebrum. Each of these performs certain tasks to ensure proper functioning of brain, which controls various functions of our body. At the same time, the brain is also divided into 2 hemispheres: the right brain, which is more vision oriented, and the left brain, which is more analytical.
Human Brain and the Nervous System
Like we said earlier, the brain is made up of a hundred billion cells. A significant number of these cells are actually neurons, which trigger nerve impulses in the body. These cells are not just restricted to the brain, but are present in the various parts of the body in the form of our nervous system network.
These neurons emit a chemical which is sent to another neuron through the synapse, i.e., the gap between the neurons, in order to trigger an activity. The chemicals sent from one neuron to another to trigger it, are known as neurotransmitters. Some of the most important neurotransmitters include epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Brain and the Other Systems
Information from various parts of the body is sent to the brain through the spinal cord, which is connected to its base. This information, on reaching the middle of the brain, spreads out and goes to the various parts, where it is processed before it is sent out to the different parts of the body to perform the required functions.
For instance, when we touch some hot object with the palm of our hand, the information is sent to the brain, through the spinal cord, which, in turn, orders the hand to move back. This information transfer happens at a tremendous speed.
Almost all the information sent from the different parts of the body goes through the spinal cord to the brain, with the exception of vision and hearing, which are sent directly to it, which is why a person who gets paralyzed due to some damage caused to the spinal cord can still see and hear.
Though thorough knowledge about the brain is required to understand the intricate details about it, the information provided here does cover the basics in the simplest words possible.