Did You Know?
Accounting for ⅔ of its total weight, the cerebrum is the largest part of the human brain.In most cases, the cerebrum is associated with human body functions pertaining to thought and action. It is located in the anterior portion of the forebrain. Equipped with fifty hundred to hundred thousand neurons, which send information from one part of the body to another at a tremendous speed, the cerebrum is the most dominant part of the brain in the context of size as well as functions.
Structure of the Cerebrum
In order to understand its functions, you need to get well-versed with its components, namely the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and the limbic system. The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the cerebrum, with it typical folded or wrinkly appearance. The wrinkly image we tend to envision when we think of the 'brain' is nothing, but the cerebral cortex. These characteristic wrinkles add to its efficiency by increasing its surface area and neurons in it. The cerebral cortex plays a key role in our memory, attention, thought, consciousness, language, etc. Similarly, the basal ganglia control our voluntary motor movements, while the limbic system comprises subcortical structures that are associated with emotions, behavior, long-term memory, etc.
The cerebrum can be divided into two hemispheres, or four lobes. As far as the hemispheric division is concerned, it is divided into two halves: right hemisphere, which controls the left side of the body, and left hemisphere, which controls the right side of the body. Each hemisphere is assigned specific tasks. While the right hemisphere is often associated with creativity, the left hemisphere is associated with logical abilities. The two are connected to each other by the corpus callosum.
Cerebrum Lobes and Functions
The frontal lobe, which lies right behind the frontal bone, primarily facilitates voluntary motor coordination. It is also associated with reasoning, planning, and emotions.
The parietal lobe, which lies towards the parietal bone in the upper middle part of the brain, is primarily responsible for the sense of touch or perception. Everything―right from the temperature of the surrounding to the weight you lift―is processed in this region.
The temporal lobe, which is located next to the temporal bone, is responsible for proper functioning of auditory (related to hearing) and olfactory (related to smell) senses.
The occipital lobe, lying right in front of the occipital bone, is mainly associated with sight and hence, any damage to this part can result in loss of sight.
With so many crucial functions to its credit, one can imagine how disastrous any damage to the cerebrum can turn out to be. Our brain does have a protective covering in the form of a strong skull, but that doesn't put us at the liberty of taking unwarranted risks.