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Cells in the Human Body

Cells in the Human Body

Cells form tissue, tissues form organs, organs form organ systems and these systems come together to complete the human body. Let's find out different types of cells in the human body which are considered to be the basic unit of the human body.
Shashank Nakate
The smallest unit of life, cells carry out the basic functions of the body. Cells are bound by a membrane; the nucleus & organelles are important components of cells. We shall discuss the various types of cells present in the body and the functions that they perform.
Cell Types
The different types of cells found in the human body are enlisted in the following tables. Let us start with the skin which is the outermost part of the body.
Skin Cells or Integumentary Cells
Epidermal keratinocyte Keratinocyte of fingernails and toenails
Epidermal basal cell Medullary hair shaft cell
Nail bed basal cell Cuticular hair shaft cell
Cortical hair shaft cell Hair root sheath cell of Huxley's layer
Cuticular hair root sheath cell External hair root sheath cell
Hair root sheath cell of Henle's layer Hair matrix cell

Nervous System

Neurons of Central Nervous System

Astrocyte Oligodendrocyte
Neuron cells Spindle neuron

Autonomic Neuron Cells

Cholinergic neural cell
Peptidergic neural cell
Adrenergic neural cell

Sensory Transducer Cells

Photoreceptor cells of retinas in the eyes Olfactory receptor neuron
Pain-sensitive primary sensory neurons Merkel cell of epidermis
Cold-sensitive primary sensory neurons Heat-sensitive primary sensory neurons
Auditory outer hair cell of the organ of Corti Basal cell of olfactory epithelium
Auditory inner hair cell of organ of Corti Touch-sensitive primary sensory neurons
Proprioceptive primary sensory neurons Type I hair cell in the vestibular apparatus of the ear
Type II hair cell of vestibular apparatus of ear Type I carotid body cell
Type II carotid body cell Type I taste bud cell

Peripheral Neuron Supporting and Sense Organ Cells

Outer phalangeal cell of organ of Corti Inner phalangeal cell of organ of Corti
Outer pillar cell of organ of Corti Inner pillar cell of organ of Corti
Hensen cell of organ of Corti Border cell of organ of Corti
Taste bud supporting cell Vestibular apparatus supporting cell
Schwann cell Olfactory epithelium supporting cell
Enteric glial cell Satellite cell

Hormone Secreting Cells

Somatotropes Thyrotropes
Lactotropes Corticotropes
Gonadotrope cells Magnocellular neurosecretory cells
Intermediate pituitary cell Thyroid gland cells
Gut and respiratory tract cells Adrenal gland cells
Parathyroid gland cells Leydig cell of testes
Corpus luteum cell Theca interna cell
Macula densa cell Juxtaglomerular cell
Mesangial cell Peripolar cell

Gland Cells

Salivary gland serous cell Salivary gland mucous cell
Mammary gland cell Von Ebner's gland cell in tongue
Ceruminous gland cell in ear Lacrimal gland cell
Eccrine sweat gland clear cell Eccrine sweat gland dark cell
Gland of Moll cell in eyelid Apocrine sweat gland cell
Bowman's gland cell in nose Sebaceous gland cell
Seminal vesicle cell Brunner's gland cell in duodenum
Bowman's gland cell in nose Prostate gland cell
Seminal vesicle cell Bartholin's gland cell
Bulbourethral gland cell Uterus endometrium cell
Gland of Littre cell Stomach lining mucous cell
Isolated goblet cell Gastric gland oxyntic cell
Gastric gland zymogenic cell Paneth cell of small intestine
Pancreatic acinar cell Clara cell of lung
Type II pneumocyte of lung

Epithelial Cells

Blood vessel and lymphatic vascular endothelial fenestrated cell Blood vessel and lymphatic vascular endothelial splenic cell
Blood vessel and lymphatic vascular endothelial continuous cell Serosal cell
Synovial cell Squamous cell
Columnar cell Vestibular membrane cell
Dark cell Stria vascularis marginal cell
Stria vascularis basal cell Cell of Boettcher
Cell of Claudius Pia-arachnoid squamous cell
Choroid plexus cell Nonpigmented ciliary epithelium cell of eye
Pigmented ciliary epithelium cell of eye Corneal endothelial cell

Extracellular Matrix Secretion Cells
Ameloblast epithelial cell Organ of Corti interdental epithelial cell
Planum semilunatum epithelial cell Corneal fibroblasts
Loose connective tissue fibroblasts Bone marrow reticular tissue fibroblasts
Tendon fibroblasts Pericyte
Other nonepithelial fibroblasts Cementoblast/cementocyte
Nucleus pulposus cell of intervertebral disc Hyaline cartilage chondrocyte
Odontoblast/odontocyte Elastic cartilage chondrocyte
Fibrocartilage chondrocyte Osteoprogenitor cell
Osteoblast/osteocyte Stellate cell of perilymphatic space of ear
Hyalocyte of vitreous body of eye Pancreatic stellate cell
Hepatic stellate cell

Immune System and Blood Cells

Erythrocyte Monocyte
Megakaryocyte Epidermal Langerhans cell
Connective tissue macrophage Dendritic cell
Osteoclast Neutrophil granulocyte
Microglial cell Basophil granulocyte
Eosinophil granulocyte Helper T cell
Mast cell Cytotoxic T cell
Suppressor T cell B cell
Natural Killer T cell Reticulocyte
Natural killer cell Stem cell

Contractile Cells

White skeletal muscle cell Red skeletal muscle cell
Nuclear bag cell of muscle spindle Intermediate skeletal muscle cell
Nuclear chain cell of muscle spindle Purkinje fiber cell
Satellite cell Ordinary heart muscle cell
Nodal heart muscle cell Myoepithelial cell of iris
Smooth muscle cell Myoepithelial cell of exocrine glands

Ciliated Cells

Respiratory tract ciliated cell Uterine endometrial ciliated cell
Oviduct ciliated cell Rete testis ciliated cell
Ciliated ependymal cell Ductulus efferens ciliated cell

Barrier Function Cells

Kidney glomerulus parietal cell Kidney proximal tubule brush border cell
Kidney glomerulus podocyte Kidney distal tubule cell
Loop of Henle thin segment cell Kidney collecting duct cell
Pancreatic duct cell Type I pneumocyte
Nonstriated duct cell Intestinal brush border cell
Duct cell Gallbladder epithelial cell
Exocrine gland striated duct cell Epididymal principal cell
Ductulus efferens nonciliated cell Epididymal basal cell

Storage and Metabolism Cells

White fat cell Hepatocyte
Liver lipocyte Brown fat cell

The cells in the human body change in number, depending on the size of a person and due to many other factors. However, one must take care of the body to replenish these cells and help them to perform their functions to their best.